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Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling Facilities--HCI Process; Proposed Rule

  >Date: Thu, 18 Sep 1997 11:17:31 -0400 (EDT)
  >From: sns@valley.rtpnc.epa.gov
  >To: epa-air@valley.rtpnc.epa.gov
  >Subject: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
  >Message-ID: <Pine.OSF.3.96.970918111725.2759A-100000@valley.rtpnc.epa.gov>
  >[Federal Register: September 18, 1997 (Volume 62, Number 181)]
  >[Proposed Rules]
  >[Page 49051-49075]
  >>From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
  >[[Page 49051]]
  >Part II
  >Environmental Protection Agency
  >40 CFR Part 63
  >National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source
  >Categories; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
  >for Steel Pickling Facilities--HCI Process; Proposed Rule
  >[[Page 49052]]
  >40 CFR Part 63
  >[IL-64-2-5807; FRL-5887-8]
  >RIN 2060-AE41
  >National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for
  >Source Categories; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air
  >Pollutants for Steel Pickling Facilities--HCl Process
  >AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  >ACTION: Proposed rule and notice of public hearing.
  >SUMMARY: This action proposes national emission standards for hazardous
  >air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing hydrochloric acid (HCl)
  >process steel pickling lines and HCl regeneration plants pursuant to
  >section 112 of the Clean Air Act (Act) as amended in November 1990.
  >Steel pickling lines that employ the HCl process and associated HCl
  >acid regeneration plants have been identified by the EPA as potentially
  >significant emitters of hydrochloric acid, a chemical identified in the
  >Act as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). Chronic exposure to HCl has
  >been reported to cause gastritis, chronic bronchitis, dermatitis, and
  >photosensitization. Acute inhalation exposure may cause coughing,
  >hoarseness, inflammation and ulceration of the respiratory tract, chest
  >pain, and pulmonary edema. Hydrochloric acid regeneration plants have
  >been identified as significant emitters of HCl and chlorine
  >(CL<INF>2</INF>), the latter of which is also identified in the Act as
  >a HAP. Acute exposure to high levels of CL<INF>2</INF> in humans
  >results in chest pain, vomiting, toxic pneumonitis, pulmonary edema,
  >and death. At lower levels CL<INF>2</INF> is a potent irritant to the
  >eyes, the upper respiratory tract, and lungs. This rulemaking will
  >affect steel pickling lines that use HCl as the primary acid, acid
  >regeneration plants, and acid storage tanks. The purpose of the
  >proposed rule is to reduce emissions of HCl by about 8,360 megagrams
  >per year (Mg/yr) and CL<INF>2</INF> by about 19 Mg/yr. The NESHAP
  >provides protection to the public by requiring all HCl pickling lines,
  >acid regeneration plants, and acid storage tanks to meet emission
  >standards that reflect the application of maximum achievable control
  >technology (MACT).
  >DATES: Comments. Comments on the proposed rule must be received on or
  >before November 17, 1997.
  >    Public Hearing. If anyone contacts the EPA requesting to speak at a
  >public hearing by October 9, 1997, a public hearing will be held on
  >October 20, 1997, beginning at 10 a.m.
  >ADDRESSES: Comments. Written comments should be submitted (in
  >duplicate, if possible) to: Docket No. A-95-43 at the following
  >address: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Radiation Docket
  >and Information Center (6102), 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460.
  >The EPA requests that a separate copy of the comments also be sent to
  >the contact person listed below. The docket is located at the above
  >address in Room M-1500, Waterside Mall (ground floor).
  >    A copy of today's notice, technical background information
  >document, and other materials related to this rulemaking are available
  >for review in the docket. Copies of this information may be obtained by
  >request from the Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center by
  >calling (202) 260-7548. A reasonable fee may be charged for copying
  >docket materials.
  >    Background Information Document. The background information
  >document (BID) for the proposed standard may be obtained from the
  >docket or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by contacting Mary
  >Hinson, Emission Standards Division (MD-13), Research Triangle Park, NC
  >27511, telephone number (919) 541-5601.
  >    Public Hearing. If anyone contacts the EPA requesting a public
  >hearing by the required date (see DATES), the public hearing will be
  >held at the EPA Office of Administration Auditorium, Research Triangle
  >Park, NC. Persons interested in presenting oral testimony or inquiring
  >as to whether a hearing is to be held should notify the contact person
  >listed below.
  >FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Maysilles, Metals Group, Emission
  >Standards Division (MD-13), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
  >Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, telephone number (919) 541-3265,
  >facsimile number (919) 541-5600, electronic mail address
  >Regulated Entities
  >    Entities potentially regulated by this action are those industrial
  >facilities that perform steel pickling using the HCl process. Regulated
  >categories and entities include:
  >                                                Examples of regulated
  >                 Category                             entities
  >Industry..................................  Steel pickling plants (SIC
  >                                             3312, 3315, 3317) using HCl
  >                                             process.
  >Federal Government:
  >  Not affected.
  >State/local/tribal governments:
  >  Not affected.
  >    This table is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a
  >guide for readers regarding entities likely to be regulated by final
  >action on this proposal. This table lists the types of entities that
  >the EPA is now aware could potentially be regulated by final action on
  >this proposal. To determine whether your facility is regulated by final
  >action on this proposal, you should carefully examine the applicability
  >criteria in section V.A of this document, and in Sec. 63.1155 of the
  >proposed rule. If you have any questions regarding the applicability of
  >this action to a particular entity, consult the person listed in the
  >Technology Transfer Network
  >    The text of today's notice also is available on the Technology
  >Transfer Network (TTN), one of EPA's electronic bulletin boards. The
  >TTN provides information and technology exchange in various areas of
  >air pollution control. The service is free, except for the cost of a
  >phone call. Dial (919) 541-5742 for up to a 14,400 BPS modem. The TTN
  >also is accessible through the Internet at ``TELNET
  >ttnbbs.rtpnc.epa.gov.'' If more information on the TTN is needed, call
  >the HELP line at (919) 541-5348. The HELP desk is staffed from 11 a.m.
  >to 5 p.m.; a voice menu system is available at other times.
  >Electronic Access and Filing Addresses
  >    The official record for this rulemaking, as well as the public
  >version, has been established under Docket No. A-95-43 (including
  >comments and data submitted electronically). A public version of this
  >record, including printed, paper versions of electronic comments, which
  >does not include any information claimed as confidential business
  >information (CBI), is available for inspection from 8 a.m. to 5:30
  >p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The official
  >rulemaking record is located at the address in ADDRESSES at the
  >beginning of this document.
  >    Electronic comments can be sent directly to EPA's Air and Radiation
  >Docket and Information Center at: ``A-
  >[[Page 49053]]
  >and-R-Docket@epamail.epa.gov.'' Electronic comments must be submitted
  >as an ASCII file avoiding the use of special characters and any form of
  >encryption. Comments and data will also be accepted on disks in
  >WordPerfect in 5.1 file format or ASCII file format. All comments and
  >data in electronic form must be identified by the docket number (A-95-
  >43). No CBI should be submitted through electronic mail. Electronic
  >comments on this proposed rule may be filed online at many Federal
  >Depository Libraries.
  >    The information in this preamble is organized as follows:
  >I. Statutory Authority
  >II. Initial List of Categories of Major and Area Sources
  >III. Background
  >    A. Description of Steel Pickling Source Category
  >    B. Emissions
  >    C. Summary of Considerations Made in Developing This Rule
  >IV. NESHAP Decision Process
  >    A. Source of Authority for NESHAP Development
  >    B. Criteria for Development of NESHAP
  >    C. Determining the MACT Floor
  >V. Summary of Proposed Standards
  >    A. Sources to be Regulated
  >    B. Emission Limits and Requirements
  >    C. Compliance Provisions
  >    D. Monitoring Requirements
  >    E. Notification, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements
  >VI. Summary of Environmental, Energy, and Economic Impacts
  >    A. Facilities Affected by This NESHAP
  >    B. Air Quality Impacts
  >    C. Water Quality Impacts
  >    D. Solid Waste Impacts
  >    E. Energy Impacts
  >    F. Cost Impacts
  >    G. Economic Impacts
  >VII. Rationale for Selecting the Proposed Standards
  >    A. Selection of Source Category and Pollutants
  >    B. Selection of Affected Sources
  >    C. Selection of Basis and Level for the Proposed Standards for
  >Existing and New Sources
  >    1. Background
  >    2. Selection of MACT
  >    D. Selection of Format
  >    1. Pickling Lines and Acid Regeneration Plants
  >    2. Acid Storage Tanks
  >    E. Selection of Emission Limits
  >    1. Continuous Pickling Lines
  >    2. Batch Pickling Lines
  >    3. Acid Regeneration Plants
  >    F. Selection of Monitoring Requirements
  >    1. Pickling Lines
  >    2. Acid Regeneration Plants
  >    G. Selection of Test Methods
  >    H. Selection of Notification, Recordkeeping, and Reporting
  >    I. Solicitation of Comments
  >VIII. Administrative Requirements
  >    A. Docket
  >    B. Public Hearing
  >    C. Executive Order 12866
  >    D. Enhancing the Intergovernmental Partnership Under Executive
  >Order 12875
  >    E. Unfunded Mandates Act
  >    F. Regulatory Flexibility Act
  >    G. Paperwork Reduction Act
  >    H. Clean Air Act
  >I. Statutory Authority
  >    The statutory authority for this proposal is provided by sections
  >101, 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C.
  >7401, 7412, 7414, 7416, and 7601).
  >II. Initial List of Categories of Major and Area Sources
  >    Section 112 of the Act requires that the EPA promulgate regulations
  >requiring the control of HAP emissions from major and area sources. The
  >control of HAP emissions is achieved through promulgation of emission
  >standards under sections 112(d) and 112(f) and operational and work
  >practice standards under section 112(h) for categories of sources that
  >emit HAP.
  >    An initial list of categories of major and area sources of HAP
  >selected for regulation in accordance with section 112(c) of the Act
  >was published in the Federal Register on July 16, 1992 (57 FR 31576).
  >``Steel Pickling--HCl Process'' is one of the 174 categories of sources
  >listed. The category consists of facilities engaged in the pickling of
  >steel using HCl as the pickling acid. This category does not include
  >facilities that pickle steel with other acids. The listing was based on
  >the Administrator's determination that HCl steel pickling facilities
  >may reasonably be anticipated to emit hydrochloric acid, one of the
  >listed HAP, in quantities sufficient to designate them as major
  >sources. Information subsequently collected by the EPA as part of this
  >rulemaking confirms that more than three-fourths of HCl pickling
  >facilities emit or have the potential to emit HCl at levels greater
  >than 9.1 megagrams per year (Mg/yr) (10 standard tons per year (tpy))
  >and therefore are major sources.
  >III. Background
  >A. Description of Steel Pickling Source Category
  >    The ``Steel Pickling--HCl Process'' source category includes any
  >facility engaged in the pickling of steel using hydrochloric acid as
  >the pickling acid. Steel pickling is the process in which the heavy
  >oxide crust or mill scale that develops on the surface of steel during
  >hot forming or heat treating is removed chemically in a bath of aqueous
  >acid solution. Removal of the oxide layer is necessary to prepare the
  >surface for subsequent shaping or finishing. The source category does
  >not include facilities which pickle steel using acids other than HCl.
  >    The category includes both continuous and batch pickling
  >operations. In the continuous pickling process the steel is fed through
  >a sequence of tanks in a countercurrent direction to the flow of the
  >acid solution; next, the steel is passed through a series of rinse
  >tanks or a rinsing section. In the batch pickling process, the steel is
  >immersed in an acid solution until the scale or oxide film is removed,
  >lifted from the bath, allowed to drain, and then rinsed by spraying or
  >immersion in rinse tanks.
  >    To obtain current data on the industry, the EPA compiled data
  >supplied by the industry in response to an information collection
  >request (ICR) issued in May 1992. Facilities on the mailing list were
  >identified from trade publications and other generally available
  >information. Information reported included capacity and annual
  >production or processing rate as well as design information for
  >existing air pollution control systems. Some data were reported for
  >acid storage tanks.
  >    Data were also reported on HCl regeneration plants, which are
  >operated at several facilities that conduct HCl pickling. Regeneration
  >plants are an integral part of the pickling operation at those
  >    Based on the sources of information used to develop the mailing
  >list and the completeness of responses, the EPA believes that the
  >reported information comprises a data base that adequately describes
  >the industry and its air pollution control equipment for development of
  >the MACT standards.
  >    According to the data base, one Federal agency and 77 privately
  >owned companies operated 101 steel pickling facilities and 10 acid
  >regeneration facilities during 1991. Operations were located in 20
  >States in seven EPA Regions. Eight of the facilities operating acid
  >regeneration plants are collocated with pickling facilities, while two
  >are stand-alone custom or toll facilities. Therefore, a total of 103
  >facilities in this source category were operating in 1991. Many of the
  >facilities are located adjacent to integrated iron and steel
  >manufacturing plants or mini-mills that produce electric-furnace steel
  >from scrap.
  >    Five types of pickling processes have been identified. Table 1
  >summarizes the number of facilities and production for each process
  >[[Page 49054]]
  >                          Table 1.--HCl Steel Pickling and Acid
  >Regeneration Processes
  >                                           Number of
  >                 Process                     plants      Number of lines
  >or units      1991 Production (10 \6\)
  >Continuous Pickling:
  >  Continuous Strip......................           36  64
  >(lines)..................  33.3 tons.
  >  Push-Pull Strip.......................           19  22
  >(lines)..................   4.5 tons.
  >  Rod/Wire..............................           20  55
  >(lines)..................   0.6 tons.
  >  Tube..................................            4  11
  >(lines)..................   0.5 tons.
  >Batch Pickling..........................           26  59
  >(lines)..................   0.9 tons.
  >      Pickling Total *..................          101  211
  >(lines).................  39.8 tons.
  >Acid Regeneration.......................           10  13
  >(units)..................  98.0 gal.
  >* Four facilities perform batch and continuous rod/wire pickling
  >processes. Eight facilities have acid
  >  regeneration plants on site. The total number of facilities is 103.
  >    Steel pickling operations are characterized by the form of metal
  >processed and the type of pickling equipment used. The principal forms
  >of steel pickled include coils of sheet or strip, rod, wire, pipe, and
  >various discreet shapes. Pickling operations may be continuous,
  >semicontinuous, and batch.
  >    A reported 39.8 million tons of steel, valued at about $18 billion
  >based on the price of hot-rolled strip, were pickled in 1991,
  >representing 65 percent of the industry capacity.
  >    Hydrochloric acid used in the pickling bath can be recovered as
  >regenerated acid, typically 16 to 20 percent HCl, from the spent pickle
  >liquor. A marketable iron oxide product is also produced as a byproduct
  >of the spray roasting or fluidized bed roasting processes used in the
  >acid plants. Waste liquor conversion and acid recovery are complete in
  >both of these processes. Annual facility capacities range from 3.15 to
  >38.9 million gallons of acid.
  >    In 1991, actual production of regenerated acid from the ten
  >facilities was 98 million gallons, which is estimated to be more than
  >40 percent of pickling acid requirements for the industry for that
  >year. Without the savings provided by use of the regenerated acid,
  >additional costs would be incurred for treatment or disposal of the
  >waste pickle liquor (K062) that are otherwise avoided.
  >B. Emissions
  >    Pickling lines of all types employ processing tanks that contain
  >HCl solution. Emissions of HCl in the forms of HCl gas and mist of HCl
  >in water are formed at the surface of the acid bath. The EPA estimates
  >that pickling facilities emit approximately 8,920 Mg/yr of HCl at the
  >current level of control.
  >    Acid regeneration plants produce emissions containing HCl that is
  >not recovered as acid solution and also Cl<INF>2</INF>, which is formed
  >as an unwanted byproduct of the process. The EPA estimates that acid
  >regeneration facilities emit about 390 Mg/yr of HCl and 35 Mg/yr of
  >Cl<INF>2</INF>. Emissions in the forms of HCl gas and acid mist from
  >tanks used to store virgin or regenerated acid are released from
  >uncontrolled tank vents. An estimated 24 Mg/yr of HCl is emitted from
  >tanks nationwide.
  >C. Summary of Considerations Made in Developing This Rule
  >    The Clean Air Act was created in part to protect and enhance the
  >quality of the Nation's air resources so as to promote the public
  >health and welfare and the productive capacity of its population. (See
  >section 101(b)(1)). Section 112(b) of the Act lists HAP believed to
  >cause adverse health or environmental effects. Section 112(d) of the
  >Act requires that emission standards be promulgated for all categories
  >and subcategories of major sources of these HAP and for many smaller
  >``area'' sources listed for regulation under section 112(c) in
  >accordance with the schedules listed under section 112(e). On December
  >3, 1993, the EPA published a schedule for promulgating these standards
  >(58 FR 63941).
  >    In the 1993 Amendments to the Act, Congress specified that each
  >standard for major sources must require the maximum reduction in
  >emissions of HAP that the EPA determines is achievable considering
  >cost, health and environmental impacts, and energy requirements. In
  >essence, these MACT standards would ensure that all major sources of
  >air toxic emissions achieve the level of control already being achieved
  >by the better controlled and lower emitting sources in each category.
  >This approach provides assurance to citizens that each major source of
  >toxic air pollution will be required to effectively control its
  >emissions. At the same time, this approach provides a level economic
  >playing field, ensuring that facilities that employ cleaner processes
  >and good emission controls are not disadvantaged relative to
  >competitors with poorer controls.
  >    Emission data collected during the development of this rule show
  >that pollutants that are listed in section 112(b)(1) and are emitted by
  >HCl steel pickling processes include hydrochloric acid and chlorine.
  >Hydrochloric acid and chlorine emissions would be reduced by
  >implementation of the proposed emission limits and equipment and
  >operating standards.
  >    Adverse health effects from exposure to HCl and Cl<INF>2</INF> have
  >been documented.<SUP>1</SUP> Chronic occupational exposure to HCl has
  >been reported to cause gastritis, chronic bronchitis, dermatitis, and
  >photosensitization in workers. Prolonged exposure to low concentrations
  >may also cause dental discoloration and erosion. Acute inhalation
  >exposure may cause coughing, hoarseness, inflammation and ulceration of
  >the respiratory tract, chest pain, and pulmonary edema in humans. No
  >information is available on the reproductive, developmental, or
  >carcinogenic effects of HCl in humans. The EPA has not classified HCl
  >with respect to potential carcinogenicity.
  >    \1\ Hydrochloric Acid. Hazardous Substance Data Bank. National
  >Library of Medicine. National Institute of Health. Printouts dated
  August 13, 1992 and November 12, 1993. See also: Hydrogen Chloride.
  Integrated Risk Information System. U.S. Environmental Protection
  Agency. Printout dated July 10, 1995.
      Acute exposure to high levels (>30 parts per million (ppm) of
  Cl<INF>2</INF> in humans results in chest pain, vomiting, toxic
  pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and death.<SUP>2</SUP> At lower levels
  (<3 ppm) Cl<INF>2</INF> is a potent irritant to the eyes, the upper
  respiratory tract, and lungs. Limited information is available on the
  chronic effects in humans. A recent epidemiologic study reported no
  [[Page 49055]]
  adverse effects in workers exposed to Cl<INF>2</INF> at 0 to 64 ppm
  over an average of 20 years. No information is available on the
  developmental, reproductive, or carcinogenic effects in humans via
  inhalation exposure. The EPA has not classified Cl<INF>2</INF> for
      \2\ Chlorine. Hazardous Substance Data Bank. National Library of
  Medicine. National Institute of Health. Printout dated August 18,
  1993. See also: Chlorine. Integrated Risk Information System. U.S.
  Environmental Protection Agency. Printout dated September 1, 1995.
      The EPA does recognize that the degree of adverse effects to health
  can range from mild to severe. The extent and degree to which the
  health effects may be experienced is dependent upon: (1) The ambient
  concentrations observed in the area (e. g., as influenced by emission
  rates, meteorological conditions, and terrain), (2) the frequency and
  duration of exposure, (3) characteristics of exposed individuals (e.g.,
  genetics, age, pre-existing health conditions, and lifestyle) that vary
  significantly with the population, and (4) pollutant-specific
  characteristics (e.g., toxicity, half-life in the environment,
  bioaccumulation, and persistence).
  IV. NESHAP Decision Process
  A. Source of Authority for NESHAP Development