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  Figures that are in a Canadian publication on U.S. pharmaceutical R&D state
  that basic research and pre-clinical testing accounted for 47.5%, clinical
  for 28.4% and "other" for 24.1% of total R&D.  (These figures are from
  PhRMA for 1988.)  The figures in the DiMasi paper (Journal of Health
  Economic 1991;10:107-142), including opportunity costs, are $164.5 million
  for preclinical costs and long-term and other animal testing and $66.3
  million for clinical testing or 71% for preclinical R&D and 29% for
  clinical R&D.
  Can anyone confirm that the PhRMA figures are accurate?  What would the
  "other" include?  Can the PhRMA figures be reconciled with the DiMasi ones?
  Thanks for any help.
  Joel Lexchin
  Joel Lexchin MD
  121 Walmer Rd.
  Toronto, Ontario
  Phone:  (416)-964-7186
  Fax:  (416)-923-9515