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Teflon Bob and Banking Deregulation
Teflon Bob and Banking Deregulation
By Russell Mokhiber and Robert Weissman
Few top government officials, whether elected or appointed, have managed
to emerge as unscathed from a half dozen years in the Washington, D.C.
spotlight as former Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin. And Rubin did better
than escape without scratches -- he ended his term of office with his
Wall Street and the financial press practically beatified him for his role
in overseeing the global economy through difficult times and working in
tandem with Federal Reserve Chair Alan Greenspan to keep the U.S. economy
Rubin helped precipitate the Asian financial crisis which has inflicted
untold suffering on tens of millions, orchestrated the bailout of foreign
bankers and investors in connection with the Mexican and Asian financial
disasters, and crafted or helped implement domestic policies that ensured
the overwhelming portion of benefits from economic growth would go to the
rich -- but none of this managed to sully the reputation of the Secretary
Now Teflon Bob appears on the verge of demonstrating that his immunity to
criticism makes Ronald Reagan look like he was coated with bubble gum.
When he stepped down from his Treasury post this past summer, Rubin left
unfinished a legislative effort to re-write the nation's banking laws.
Misnamed "financial modernization" legislation was really a deregulatory
initiative -- reminiscent of the S&L deregulation that led to a corporate
crime spree, the collapse of the industry and the subsequent taxpayer
bailout of epic proportions.
The centerpiece of the deregulatory bill, which different fragments of the
finance industry have pushed for a decade and a half, is the repeal of the
revered Glass-Steagall Act, which bars the common ownership of banks on
the one hand, and insurance companies and securities firms on the other.
Although powerful interests have long backed the legislation, it has
repeatedly failed to make it through Congress because of a maze of
intra-industry disputes, turf fights between different parts of the
federal regulatory structure, and the concerted efforts of consumer and
community development advocates.
Another failure seemed possible or likely this fall, especially as Senate
Banking Chair Phil Gramm, R-Texas, refused to compromise on privacy and
community development issues.
Another failure, however, was not acceptable to one company above all --
Citigroup. The product of the merger between Citibank and Travelers,
Citigroup is operating in apparent violation of the bar on common
ownership of banking, and insurance and securities, thanks to a loophole
that provides for a two-year transition period.
Enter Robert Rubin. According to a report in the New York Times, Rubin
helped broker the final compromise language on financial deregulation.
And while he was brokering a deal between Congress and the White House, he
was also, according to the New York Times account, negotiating his own
deal with Citigroup. A few days after the banking deal was finalized,
Citigroup announced it was hiring Rubin as a de facto co-chair of the
This chronology and these arrangements raise serious issues about whether
federal ethics statutes and informal Clinton administration rules have
Rubin told the New York Times that he was proud of his work in preserving
the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA -- an important law that requires
banks to make loans in minority and lower-income communities in which they
do business). In fact, the final version of the bill significantly weakens
CRA: there will be no ongoing sanctions against holding company banks that
fail to meet CRA standards, it will lessen the number of CRA examinations,
and provisions of the bill will discourage community groups from
challenging banks' CRA records.
And the weakening of the CRA is only one element of the finance industry's
deregulatory wish list which is included in the compromise legislation.
The bill will:
* Pave the way for a new round of record-shattering financial industry
mergers, dangerously concentrating political and economic power;
* Create too-big-to-fail institutions that are someday likely to drain the
public treasury as taxpayers bail out imperiled financial giants to
protect the stability of the nation's banking system;
* Leave financial regulatory authority spread among a half dozen federal
and 50 state agencies, all uncoordinated, that will be overmatched by the
soon-to-be financial goliaths;
* Facilitate the rip-off of mutual fund insurance policy holders by
permitting mutual insurance funds to switch domicile states -- thereby
enabling them to locate in states where they can convert to for-profit,
stockholder companies without properly reimbursing mutual policyholders (a
conversion of tens of billions of dollars);
* Aggressively intrude on consumer privacy (and promote a still-greater
intensification of direct marketing), thanks to provisions permitting the
new financial giants to share finance, health, consumer and other personal
information among affiliates; and
* Allow banks to continue to deny services to the poor (Congress rejected
an amendment requiring banks to provide "lifeline accounts" to the poor,
so they would have refuge from check-cashing operations and the
Robert Rubin helped deliver this ticking time bomb of a bill to Wall
Street, first while in Treasury and then while in negotiations to land a
top spot at the finance industry's largest and highest-profile company. He
may well escape unscathed yet again, but it is sure to blow up on the rest
Russell Mokhiber is editor of the Washington, D.C.-based Corporate Crime
Reporter. Robert Weissman is editor of the Washington, D.C.-based
Multinational Monitor. They are co-authors of Corporate Predators: The
Hunt for MegaProfits and the Attack on Democracy (Monroe, Maine: Common
Courage Press, 1999; http://www.corporatepredators.org)
(c) Russell Mokhiber and Robert Weissman
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